April 18, 2021
DEF is now required for many diesel engines to reduce emissions. Using DEF is simple when you understand the facts.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid ("DEF", also "AdBlue") is a liquid used to reduce diesel engine pollution. Specifically, DEF is an urea solution made with 32.5% urea and 67.5% deionized water. DEF is integrated into the exhaust system through the selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which lowers the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the diesel exhaust emissions from a diesel engine.
DEF is stored in its own fluid container, and it is sprayed into the exhaust stream by an advanced injection system and then converted into ammonia on a special catalyst. Most larger diesel engines are required to meet emissions standards (Tier IV on off-highway vehicles). DEF fluid is consumed at a rate of between 2% and 6% relative to diesel fuel, depending on the engine specifications.
Emissions regulations in most developed countries now require some sort of after-treatment solution to reduce diesel emissions. DEF fluid is one of the most cost effective and cleanest ways to meet these regulatory guidelines.
DEF is a mixture that contains 67.5% deionized water and 32.5% urea. When introduced into the hot exhaust gas, the water in DEF gets evaporated naturally, and it leaves behind ammonia and isocyanic acid. These two compounds help clean diesel exhaust.
You should always check your DEF fluid levels and refill the same way you do with your diesel fuel. DEF is consumed at a slower pace than diesel, however, the tank is also much smaller. Timing to refill your DEF fluid depends on the relative size of your DEF and diesel tanks, as well as your engine specifications (some engines use more DEF than others). As a precaution, always travel with extra DEF fluid and fill it whenever the level gets to about a quarter full. Your engine may not run or could get damaged if your DEF fluid is empty.
DEF is widely available at most truck centers and service stations. It is also available at big box retailers such as Wal-Mart. It is typically sold in large jugs.
DEF engines are much cleaner burning, however they come with a higher price tag given the extra components required. There really is not a choice — most engines in developed countries are required to have integrated emissions treatment solutions, and DEF is the cheapest and most effective way to meet guidelines.
Not all countries in the world require the use of DEF. As a result, often the export markets prefer non-SCR engines because they are cheaper to operation and maintain.
No. DEF trucks that come with the SCR technology are inbuilt with a smog control feature that gives better fuel mileage to your truck. According to experts, DEF trucks have at least 5 to 7% better fuel mileage than the other trucks.
Yes, DEF technology has been used for many years now — in agriculture, power generation and other industrial applications. Urea, when blended with heat, can reduce NOx by 70% or more. While the nitrogen-based fertilizers used in agriculture are of less purity, the automotive-grade urea used in industries is of very high purity.
Yes, but it can take a long time for the DEF to evaporate. At about 125 degrees Fahrenheit, DEF, if not used, would take around two years to turn into ammonia and evaporate. However, you can expect some evaporation even at 86 degrees Fahrenheit because DEF contains almost 67% of water.
Urea is mostly used in fertilizers and cosmetic products. While it doesn’t cause any fatal diseases, urea can cause some allergies to the eyes, skin and respiratory system. When you ingest urea in very high quantities, it can turn toxic for you.
The DEF tank should be treated just like the normal fuel tank in a vehicle. When this tank is empty, your engine will not run or fail to start. Today, it is mandatory for all diesel engine manufacturers to include a warning system located on the dashboard so the driver knows the DEF fluid level.
At 12 degrees Fahrenheit, the 32.5% DEF solution starts to crystallize. DEF is comprised of water which will naturally freeze. DEF will expand when it freezes, the same way ice cubes expand in the freezer.
The DEF container in your engine typically has a system to address frozen DEF fluid. You should be mindful of extra DEF containers you keep on hand — try to store them in areas without large temperature fluctuations.
No, consumers cannot and should not make their own DEF. DEF contains additional additives. Using the wrong fluids can damage your engine or SCR.
At stable room temperature the expected shelf life of DEF is about two years. Hotter climates reduce the shelf life to one year or shorter.